According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics in 2002, Out of every ten Americans, one became a victim of fraud. This may have increased by now. These data were derived from the survey and did not fully reflect the real situation. The same survey showed that cases of fraud to the police were reported by only 49% of the victims. The typical victim of swindlers was usually an elderly man with a low educational level and income.
* Fraud – defined in criminal law – the crime of the acquisition of anothers property (or the acquisition of property rights) by means of deception or breach of trust.
Due to the development of ,scams have increasingly started to operate in virtual space. In 2001, the damage from the fraud committed via the Internet and email, for the first time exceeded the damage caused by “traditional” rogues who do not use computers to conduct fraud. According to the Center for Analysis of internet fraud (Internet Fraud Complaint Center), the average victim of Internet crime in 2002, lost 845 dollars as compared to the victim of “traditional fraud” – 840 dollars (data from the FBI).
Only 3 … 5% of the frauds committed by real business structures. Fraudsters, in most cases, use the principle of “chicken pecking at grain and cause its victims relatively little damage. In 32% of the rogues can steal from 100 to 499 dollars, 18% – from 1 st to 3 thousand dollars only in every tenth case, the victim’s financial losses exceed 3 thousand dollars probably is going to and from of the activity of law enforcement. Statistics also shows that the bigger the loss robbed so great diligence the police seeking to find the attacker. Most of the fraudsters have stolen more than the sum of 5 thousand dollars, have been arrested within three to four months. However, a few years in search are scammers who tricked received from 100 to 1.5 million dollars
Experts Legal Centre Society of U.S. consumers (National Consumer Law Center) believes that the actions of cheaters do not differ in diversity, and they use only a few well-known techniques. However, these methods work, not withstanding the fact that the dangers of such actions is well known. For example, a certain Mark Brown (Mark Browne) in 1998 committed at least six frauds using one and the same scheme. He opened a virtual store and ring up people with an offer to buy consumer electronics at ultra low prices. Gathering 10-20 thousand dollars, Brown then disappeared.
Statistics show that in the U.S., the most successfully triggered following methods are applied on victims: a message that offered the chance to buy a thing at such a cheap price – the promise of obtaining a monetary prize, the promise that health is much improved and the proposal of secret information that would allow the victim earn and use intricate rules that consumers are not able to comprehend. This article is brought to you on demand of
Communicating with potential victims, the fraudsters tend to stress that their activities are absolutely legal. They tend to use names of well-known and established firms (for example, that consumers make for their employees Ivanov & Co, used the name Evanov & Co). Almost half of the cases, the fraudsters were able to catch prey in their nets after a telephone conversation.
How to Steal a Million
According to the National Consumers League (National Consumers League) in the United States fraudsters most often used the following types of fraud or scams:
Stealing credit card information
Swindlers who obtain information about personal data the card holder can pay with it in the shops, take bank loans, rent housing, apply for benefits, etc.
Online stores and auctions
Scheme: the buyer pays money for the purchase of an online store, but either did not receive it, or receives the goods in smaller quantities or inferior quality. The most popular scams on the Internet. According to the Center for Analysis of Internet fraud, such crimes in 2002 amounted to 27% of the number of recorded crimes in the worldwide web.
The company proposes to buy its shares or to make private investments, promising a significant profit. Usually to attract victims, the fraudsters operate phony statistics and reporting false information about the history or the owners of the company.
Fundraising is widely distributed in the U.S.. 90% of Americans donate to larger or smaller amounts to various charities. These crooks use this method. They simply create a fake charity that specializes in some good work, and quite openly collect donations. The only difference from conventional charities is pocketing the money by these rascals.
Restore Credit History
Virtually every resident of the United States and each company have their own credit history – a chronicle of obtaining and repaying loans. In the U.S. there are a number of independent credit bureaus that track credit histories Americans, share information and operate completely independently from each other and from third-party companies and organizations. Influence on their actions is impossible. Many Americans are unable to carry the loan burden, and their credit history deteriorates, making it impossible to buy houses, cars, etc., since banks do not want to bind to an unreliable borrower. Crooks offer for a modest fee to “improve” credit history – of course, those promises are not fulfilled, because they can not be performed in principle.
Repayment of debts
In time of bad loans and unpaid bills are considered personal debt U.S. resident. Quite often a person is unable to pay all their bills. These crooks use: they offer the following scheme: their own company pays the bills in the U.S. and is seeking major discounts from lenders, but a victim of covering the costs of the company. In reality, rogues only get money from their victims.
Crooks offer lucrative work at home. However, the victim has to pay extortionate prices provided the supplies to make a warranty or registration fee or part-time work as a free trial period.
“Insurance” company is offering record low prices for their services. In fact, either this company exists only on paper, or she lays a contract with the client, such conditions that make it impossible to get insurance money.
Individuals often offer preferential loans. However, to obtain such credit crooks do require a fee (eg, to obtain a loan of $ 100, the victim pays $ 150) or a pawn in a contract extortionate interest rates.
Recipient of the letter are invited to participate in the transfer from Nigeria (Ghana, Libya, Congolese, Mozambican, etc.) of the bank in the U.S. bank a few million dollars belonging to the heirs of the African presidents, ministers, dictators, kings, etc. For their assistance, the recipient must get a quarter or a third of the amount transferred. However, to demonstrate the purity of intentions, the victim is invited to translate a few thousand dollars at the expense of crooks. Back in 2001, “Nigerian letter” believe 15.5% of victims of online fraud , the number of victims has fallen sharply – to 1% due to awareness.
This scheme is widely known and was first used several hundred years ago. However, until now the financial “pyramid” attract victims. The last of the collapsed U.S. “pyramids” attracted funds 7 thousand people, each of which has lost about 3 thousand dollars
Sometimes, U.S. residents do not have time time to file a tax return. Scammers offer to falsify data on the time of delivery declaration to the tax service and, thus, to avoid trouble.
The victim is invited to call a phone number, where a minute call costs a fortune. Small telephone companies also resorted to fraud: they expose their clients accounts, which include services (eg voice mail) that the customer did not order.
Rogues or unscrupulous businessmen sell their victims’ tours or tickets to hotels, real conditions in which considerably less advertising. For example, instead of five-star hotel is victim of thieves in a three-star.
Revolutionary method of getting rid of excess weight
Advertising promises to get rid of excess weight within days or weeks when using the new miracle drug or diet. In the best case, the victim becomes the owner of a useless product, and at worst – the health is under threat.
There are certain tips presented by the FBI to keep civilians safe from Such Scams and Frauds.